Manitoba ASCD Blog

Jan Stewart on...The School Counsellor’s Role in Promoting Social Justice for Refugee and Immigrant Children

Thursday, February 14, 2019

The following article was originally published in the Canadian Journal of Counselling and Psychotherapy, Vol. 28 No. 3, pages 251-269

Forced migration as a result of conflict and war has contributed to the global movement of people and the need for institutions, such as schools, to respond with programs and services to meet the needs of students from culturally diverse backgrounds. Citizenship and Immigration Canada (2012) reports 257,515 newcomers to Canada in 2012, with approximately 10–12% classified as refugees. By 2031, Statistics Canada (2010) projects that roughly 30% of the population will be a visible minority and approximately 36% will be under the age of 15.

Globally, the increase in the numbers of refugees and asylum seekers and the forced movement of people to host countries such as Canada, Australia, and the United States have necessitated a closer examination of educational systems and policies that affect resettlement and adjustment (Taylor & Sidhu, 2012). Much of the literature related to refugee education has focused on problems and challenges that refugee students encounter and the difficulties the school and community have with helping students be successful in a host country (McBrien, 2009). Schools have a critical role in the process of resettlement of refugee students (Christie & Sidhu, 2002), yet numerous reports indicate that schools feel unequipped and teachers feel ill-prepared to meet the unique and diverse needs of these students (Stewart, 2011).

Refugees are individuals forced to fee their country because of persecution, war, or violence (UNHCR, 2013). Many refugee children and adolescents, who have been exposed to war and armed conflict prior to coming to Canada, have certain needs beyond cultural and social adjustment. Some students have suffered from personal trauma, torture, imprisonment, violence, and loss (Machel, 2001), and others have experienced long-term catastrophic stress and psychological distress as a result of conflict and forced displacement (Zanskas, 2010). Changes to demographics result in increasingly complex social dynamics as well as concerns for inequality and injustice (Goodman, 2001). In addition to noting changing demographics and the movement of people, Kirylo, Tirumurthy, and Ceasar (2011) drew attention to the varied modes of technologies and communication systems that have connected the world and resulted in interrelationships between people from diverse countries, also resulting in the need for increased multicultural and social competencies for counsellors.

Although many children from refugee backgrounds exhibit resilience and resourcefulness, there are some who come to school and experience numerous challenges and obstacles that complicate their social, academic, and emotional development (Matthews, 2008). The literature pertaining to the needs of refugee children reveals numerous systemic and complex issues that complicate the adjustment process for refugee children (Yakushko, Watson, & Tompson, 2008). School counsellors can act as stable support persons in the lives of refugee students, and they can play an integral role in making schools into safe and accepting environments for these children. To do this, school counsellors need to learn about the issues related to children from refugee backgrounds so that they are able to critically examine and challenge how to best meet their personal, social, and academic needs. When properly prepared, school counsellors can play an important role in constructing culturally responsive policies, practices, and interventions that influence the entire school community.

More attention needs to be devoted to programming and support for newcomer and refugee children, and educators need more preparation so that they have the skills and knowledge to best support their unique educational and psychosocial needs (Stewart, 2011). Numerous reports suggest that school systems are failing these students (Dahir & Stone, 2009; Hek, Hughes, & Ozman, 2012), and this often leads to exclusion or marginalization and the exacerbation of social difficulties (Stewart, 2011). Without the institutional capacity or individual support for refugee students, there is a risk that they will leave school, either voluntarily or involuntarily (MacKay & Tavares, 2005).

Counsellors are uniquely positioned in the school to provide leadership, guidance, and direction toward social change. Fundamental counselling skills are closely aligned to the tenets of social justice (Constantine, Hage, Kindaichi, & Bryant, 2007). Counsellors reflect and value fairness, equity in resources, and the liberation of those who are marginalized. Counsellors who are committed to social justice think critically, question their current practices, and undertake an advocacy role to support marginalized students (Constantine et al., 2007). D’Andrea and Heckman (2008) noted that while multicultural and social justice issues are rooted in the counselling field, they have been largely ignored.

The argument put forth in this article is that current educational systems and learning communities must be transformed to meet the rapidly changing racial, cultural, and ethnic demographics of Canadian classrooms, and school counsellors can assume an essential role in this transformation. To do this, school counsellors need to develop culturally responsive skills and competencies that will better help them respond to the needs of refugee and immigrant students. It is incumbent on counsellor education programs to develop counsellors who are critical and who question policies and practices affecting underserved and underrepresented students and who have the motivation to advocate for change.

Although social justice issues are far-reaching and complex, the purpose of this article is threefold. First, the article provides an overview of the concept of “social justice” and how the concept can be supported and promoted by school counsellors. Second, an adapted version of Brown’s (2004) theoretical framework is used to guide the discussion and to orient and prepare counsellors toward a social justice paradigm that includes critical social theory, adult learning theory, and transformative learning theory as well as three pedagogical strategies of critical refection, rational discourse, and policy praxis. Third, an overview of the issues refugee students encounter in Canadian schools is discussed along with strategies and recommendations for supporting these children and their families. When school counsellors are prepared for social justice critique and activism, they will be able to examine injustices in the system and focus on desired goals.

Interested in reading more? The full article can be found here

Posted by Meghan Burns at 10:40 AM – 0 Comments

Jan Stewart on...Supporting Newcomer and Refugee Youth

Sunday, February 10, 2019

The following excerpt can be found in Dr. Jan Stewart and Lorna Martin's new book, Bridging New Worlds: Supporting Newcomer and Refugee Youth.

Nine key themes and 12 sub-themes emerged when we categorized the data collected during our study. Themes include the social determinants of health, social justice and equity, trauma-informed practices, counselling skills, and educator self-care.


Participants in the study were consistent in their determination that “teachers need to know where (students) are coming from, what is the history of conflict in their home country, and how students have been affected by war.” This awareness is critical to building the relationships and alliances that encourage learning and growth. While increased awareness of war-affected areas of the world is important, it is even more pertinent to recognize the signs and symptoms of mental health and learning concerns in individual children.
Not all children and youth who have emigrated from a war-affected country and have refugee or newcomer status will have been affected to the same degree or in the same way as siblings, other family members, or unrelated students from the same country. The respondents in the study confirmed that, to be highly effective, schools need to be trauma sensitive and as supportive of refugee and newcomer students as they would be of any student with an unknown or commonplace background. Teachers must be alert to potential unconscious biases that may lead them to generalize the experiences of students from abroad without direct evidence, or to link common behavioural and learning difficulties to a refugee or newcomer student without functional assessments and an evidence-based decision-making process. Many refugee and newcomer students are resilient and stable in their learning and transition to a new land and culture.


The health of Canadians’ is directly affected by factors that include how income and wealth are distributed; employment status; the conditions of work where itis available; health and social services; and the quality and availability of education, food, and housing. In most cases, these social determinants of health, or living conditions, are beyond the control of refugee and newcomer families in Canada; they are most frequently determined by the communities in which individuals live, work, and go to school. Respondents in the study indicated that increased understanding of the inequities in access to community services and supports, adequate housing, food, and employment—and of potential solutions to these inequities—helps schools and school systems to support teachers as they work with refugee and newcomer students. Making referral agents and resources easily available to teachers enables them to help their students overcome obstacles to learning, aids in transitions, and supports positive experiences in their communities in particular, and in Canada in general.


The study findings confirmed the importance of peace and sustainability in classrooms and school systems. Respondents indicated that teachers need to know how to infuse concepts from peace education and education for sustainable development into their practice. These concepts include restorative practices and equity training.

Restorative Practices and Justice. Teachers need to know the language and principles of restorative practices and restorative justice and how to introduce these concepts into their classrooms. Conflicts and misbehaviours should be viewed as opportunities for social and emotional learning. Teachers need to know how to help students repair and restore relationships.

Equity. Teachers in the study indicated a need for professional development (PD) focused on equity. As one respondent said, “we had PD in the early days around equity.... And one of the 16 things for best practice in teaching is to differentiate and to integrate and do inquiry.” Keeping the needs of students and their cultures at the forefront is key to successful teaching and learning. As one teacher described, “You’re really trying to make sure [the students] get opportunities within the classroom, because we can’t control what happens out there. We can control what happens here.... What we are doing, is trying to build equity.”


The most prevalent characteristics of refugees become apparent when one understands the underlying conditions common to so many of them. Students with refugee backgrounds tend to have had limited schooling, protracted and negative experiences during the exodus journey, and interrupted social and academic development. These factors create challenges to be overcome in all areas: educational, psychosocial, environmental, and academic. One study participant, a teacher, distilled the considerations that are required to support incoming students: “This is what a refugee centre is like ... this child might be old enough to be in a Grade 5 or 6 classroom, but [has] never been in school before, or only experienced school in a refugee camp. So, what does that kind of school experience look like? How can we then support them to be in this kind of school experience?” Students who have had complicated migration experiences often exhibit emotional/behavioural attributes that schools must be attentive to, and resolve.

Anger. The study findings confirmed that teachers need to know how to respond to children who are misbehaving or acting out in class. Skills in effectively de-escalating conflict, both internal and external, are key to supporting students who display symptoms consistent with frustration, anger, and sadness or depression.

Stress. Many refugee students are experiencing stress due to multiple layers of challenges. Respondents indicated that teachers need a greater understanding of how to promote stress reduction and relaxation techniques, and how to make these a part of the daily routine in schools. Relevant learning outcomes in health curricula are often helpful; focused instruction and supports are available through comprehensive and developmental guidance and counselling programs, and referrals to school counsellors, school psychologists, and social workers.

Resiliency. Recognizing the balance between risk and resiliency in a student’s experience and accepting each student’s understanding of his or her situation is the starting point for determining areas of strength in that student. What is resiliency? How do we foster resiliency? How can teachers focus on strengths and not deficits? What is it that allows some individuals to be highly resilient and possess incredible coping skills, while others with the same or a similar experience become highly susceptible to mental health problems and are deemed at “high risk” for additional problems in their lifetimes? According to respondents in the study, these questions should guide teachers to locating and employing effective supports for students, based on their individual contexts and unique personalities, life conditions, and academic functioning.

Who is the E/FAL Student? Teachers often recognize students who have English or French as an additional language by their literacy levels in the dominant language of the classroom. While many refugee and newcomer students may have limited facility in the language of the classroom, they may also have limited facility in their first language (for reasons that include a paucity of educational opportunity, migration conditions that inhibited reading and writing, and limited access to formal education due to gender-based or economic-based constraints). As one study participant indicated, low literacy levels and facility in English or French are not unique to refugee and newcomer students; students with other backgrounds and in other communities experience these also: “[There] are all these things that I didn’t realize fall under EAL. Whether [students] were on a reserve and how many years behind [provincial curriculum outcomes for literacy] and depending on how much they talk at home in their native tongue, all of these things we need to know.” Improving literacy should be a goal for all students.

Interested to learn more? Click here to purchase a copy of Bridging Two Worlds: Supporting Newcomer and Refugee Youth, or copies will be available on March 7th at the Manitoba ASCD workshop.

Posted by Meghan Burns at 12:40 PM – 0 Comments

Active Classrooms Equal Thinking Classrooms: Reflections on Peter Liljedahl's Workshop

Wednesday, January 16, 2019

After 25 years as a classroom teacher, the last three of them at a high school level, I have learned a lot. Over time, I have noticed what works with my students, what does not, what to keep and what to do away with. I have increased discussion among students, knowing that I need to talk less and that they need to talk more. I have reduced the use of textbook activity wanting instead to promote tasks that are more authentic for my students. These changes are still a work in progress. I believe students need to unlearn habits that are detrimental to learning and accept new ones that will encourage growth and real learning, but these are a hard sell. The area that I still struggle with in mathematics is problem solving. I find that my students give up easily and do not demonstrate perseverance to take a problem apart to understand it and to figure it out.

Two years ago, when I entered the Masters programme at the University of Manitoba, I began to explore the question of how to foster a better problem-solving environment in my classroom. After attending the workshop with Peter Liljedahl on January 10th, 2019, I finally feel that I am on my way to a solution.

The workshop

After a short introduction, Dr. Liljedahl put us straight to work, creating random groups of three participants and sending each one to its own whiteboard to work on the problem he had proposed orally. No one was anonymous in such circumstances. We were each accountable for making an active contribution. From here, discussion erupted and each group was absorbed in finding the solution to a seemingly simple problem. I was completely oblivious to the activity elsewhere in the room as the task held my complete attention, with the exception of slight interactions we had with other nearby groups as we exchanged coloured markers or discussed obstacles we were facing.

workshop participants

Dr. Liljedahl and his assistants circulated throughout the room giving vague feedback to groups. When they saw that we had figured out the solution, they asked us to try the next level of difficulty or gave us another problem to solve. I noticed that if one of these presenters was not nearby, participants began to give themselves an extension to the problem.

Despite the fact that we were all (or most were) motivated educators, I could imagine my own students developing these habits in this type of environment. It was contagious. I did not, however, anticipate returning to school the next day with an activity ready to implement immediately. Instead, I felt inspired to prepare to implement, with deeper consideration and intention, the changes that this new way of operating could bring to my teaching, and more importantly to the learning of my students.

Workshop in action

Possible Extensions

Dr. Liljedahl’s website provides many resources to help get the project off and running. A list of many good problems (some with links to other sites for additional problems or solutions) eliminate the issue of knowing where to find these good problems. Games and sites to get students thinking are provided. The powerpoint used during the workshop lists the key ideas shared and the rationale behind them. So although it was not ready made, the process was simple and could be implemented with little time and cost investment.

Dr. Liljedahl and his assistants also modeled the five practices of mathematics teaching (Smith and Stein, 2011), enabling the participants to see it in action. Having experienced the vertical whiteboard strategies (as a student) and having listened and discussed the rationale behind them (as an educator), I am convinced that this will move problem-solving, and more specifically, thinking, forward in my grade 9 classroom.

Peter Liljedahl

About the Author

Denine Laberge is currently teaching grades 7 to 11 mathematics at Collège Louis-Riel.

Posted by Meghan Burns at 7:44 PM – 1 Comments

Peter Liljedahl on...Building Thinking Classrooms: Conditions for Problem-Solving

Thursday, December 20, 2018

Peter Liljedahl is a professor of Mathematics in the Faculty of Education and an associate member in the Department of Mathematics at Simon Fraser University.  The following is an excerpt from his 2016 article on building thinking classrooms in order to create conditions for problem-solving.  This article was originally published here:

Liljedahl, P. (2016). Building thinking classrooms: Conditions for problem solving. In P. Felmer, J. Kilpatrick, & E. Pekhonen (eds.) Posing and Solving Mathematical Problems: Advances and New Perspectives. New York, NY: Springer. [ResearchGate, Academia]

In this chapter I first introduce the notion of a thinking classroom and then present the results of over ten years of research done on the development and maintenance of thinking classrooms. Using a narrative style I tell the story of how a series of failed experiences in promoting problem solving in the classroom led first to the notion of a thinking classroom and then to a research project designed to find ways to help teacher build such a classroom. Results indicate that there are a number of relatively easy to implement teaching practices that can bypass the normative behaviours of almost any classroom and begin the process of developing a thinking classroom.


My work on this paper began over 10 years ago with my research on the AHA! experience and the profound effects that these experiences have on students’ beliefs and self-efficacy about mathematics (Liljedahl, 2005 ). That research showed that even one AHA! experience, on the heels of extended efforts at solving a problem or trying to learn some mathematics, was able to transform the way a student felt about mathematics as well as his or her ability to do mathematics. These were descriptive results. My inclination, however, was to try to find a way to make them prescriptive. The most obvious way to do this was to find a collection of problems that provided enough of a challenge that students would get stuck, and then have a solution, or solution path, appear in a flash of illumination. In hindsight, this approach was overly simplistic. Nonetheless, I implemented a number of these problems in a grade 7 (12–13 year olds) class. 

The teacher I was working with, Ms. Ahn, did the teaching and delivery of problems and I observed. Despite her best intentions the results were abysmal. The students did get stuck, but not, as I had hoped, after a prolonged effort. Instead, they gave up almost as soon as the problem was presented to them and they resisted any effort and encouragement to persist. After three days of constant struggle, Ms. Ahn and I both agreed that it was time to abandon these efforts. Wanting to better understand why our well-intentioned efforts had failed, I decided to observe Ms. Ahn teach her class using her regular style of instruction.

That the students were lacking in effort was immediately obvious, but what took time to manifest was the realization that what was missing in this classroom was that the students were not thinking. More alarming was that Ms. Ahn’s teaching was predicated on an assumption that the students either could not or would not think. The classroom norms (Yackel & Rasmussen, 2002 ) that had been established had resulted in, what I now refer to as, a non-thinking classroom. Once I realized this, I proceeded to visit other mathematics classes—first in the same school and then in other schools. In each class, I saw the same basic behaviour—an assumption, implicit in the teaching, that the students either could not or would not think. Under such conditions, it was unreasonable to expect that students were going to spontaneously engage in problem-solving enough to get stuck and then persist through being stuck enough to have an AHA! experience.

What was missing for these students, and their teachers, was a central focus in mathematics on thinking. The realization that this was absent in so many classrooms that I visited motivated me to find a way to build, within these same classrooms, a culture of thinking, both for the student and the teachers. I wanted to build, what I now call, a thinking classroom —a classroom that is not only conducive to thinking but also occasions thinking, a space that is inhabited by thinking individuals as well as individuals thinking collectively, learning together and constructing knowledge and understanding through activity and discussion.


A thinking classroom must have something to think about. In mathematics, the obvious choice for this is a problem-solving task. Thus, my early efforts to build thinking classrooms were oriented around problem-solving. This is a subtle departure from my earlier efforts in Ms. Ahn’s classroom. Illumination-inducing tasks were, as I had learned, too ambitious a step. I needed to begin with students simply engaging in problem-solving. So, I designed and delivered a three session workshop for middle school teachers (ages 10–14) interested in bringing problem-solving into their classrooms. This was not a difficult thing to attract teachers to. At that time, there was increasing focus on problem-solving in both the curriculum and the textbooks. The research on the role of problem-solving as both an end unto itself and as a tool for learning was beginning to creep into the professional discourse of teachers in the region.

Interested to read more? Find the rest of the article HERE

Posted by Meghan Burns at 9:20 AM – 1 Comments

Three Ways Garfield Gini-Newman Has Helped Me Re-Think My Teaching

Monday, December 10, 2018

The best thing that I learned at Garfield Gini-Newman’s Creating Thinking Classrooms workshop is that I don’t have to throw out everything I am already doing to create a community of critical thinkers in the classroom. This was a huge relief to a new teacher in the “create-as-I-go” stage of my career, and who has worked hard to amass the few resources that I do have. Rather, Mr. Gini-Newman suggests tweaking what is already happening in classrooms to foster environments that encourage both critical thinking and creativity. Simple changes in what I am doing that will lead to big changes in my students’ learning? Sounds like an idea I can get behind! Here are my top three takeaways from Garfield Gini-Newman’s two recent Manitoba ASCD events.

Problematize Everything

I was struck by how easy it is to implement Mr. Gini-Newman’s ideas. He argues that we should create problems as learning experiences in our classrooms to get students thinking. Isn’t the best kind of PD the one you can take back to your classroom on Monday morning? To create problems in everything students do in the classroom, I simply need to shift my planning mindset. For students to think critically, there needs to be a problem for them to solve. Seems simple, right? As I move forward planning the rest of the school year, I am trying to find the clarity of where my students are and where they should be going. Once I accomplish this, I can make thoughtful choices to provide my students with a problem that will become the vehicle for a unit of study. I must always consider the learning that I am trying to advance.

It's The Adjective That Matters

Launch Learning with Meaningful and Authentic Challenges

Okay, so now I have my problems and I’m ready for my students to solve them, but if I am not piquing my students’ interest from day one with something meaningful and authentic, how will they be invested in solving these thoughtfully created problems? Mr. Gini-Newman argues that to have a thinking classroom, thinking needs to be happening every day. I can’t plan on going into the classroom and teaching for a week, and then once I am finished expecting students to magically start thinking. By changing the order of my unit, I can engage students from the very beginning with thoughtfully created problems. These problems will serve as anchors for how content is delivered and provide opportunities for daily thinking.

Classrooms Need to be Set Up for Thinking and Creativity

In our grade five classroom, my students and myself spend a lot of time at the beginning of the year setting up routines and expectations. We use these throughout the year and we revisit them when things need tweaking. Why am I not considering the need for thinking and creativity as we co-construct our expectations? If I am changing the way that I approach teaching, I need to also consider how the classroom runs. Am I cultivating a safe space where students know it is okay to take risks, fail and persevere? Am I encouraging student curiosity and giving students the freedom to solve problems in their own ways? This third takeaway has resonated with me the most. I still have more questions than answers, but if I can expect daily thinking even in the most minute of ways, I think I am on the right track. My hope is to create an environment where students are curious and are not afraid to take risks. In this case, students will be allowed to fail early and will hopefully come to see failures as learning experiences.

Six Forms Of Critical Thinking Tasks

Potential Classroom Plans

Mr. Gini-Newman says, “a thinking classroom is a classroom where students think to learn and learn to think. It is a classroom where students are invited to think critically, creatively, and collaboratively.” I think with a little work, I can start to create a thinking classroom. Of course, I couldn’t help but leave both sessions with my mind buzzing with ideas. Here are two ways that I think I can get more critical and creative thinking happening in my classroom.

Overhaul the Design Process

I love Grade 5 science. We learn about neat topics and have so many opportunities for hands-on authentic learning experiences. Why have I been saving the design process for the end of units? Instead of having my students evaluate food products and decide which ones to bring for a healthy lunch at the END of learning about nutrition, I plan on giving them the choice from day one. Once they make their initial choices using prior knowledge, they can continually re-evaluate and change those choices as they learn more about different nutrients and healthy eating habits.


One form that creative thinking can take is curation. In this task, students gather together sections of works - poems, paintings, artifacts etc. To complete this task, one must understand what makes a specific type of work “good” and worthy of the collection. In the new year, I want to have my students curate different French texts. Sometimes, I find that teaching in a second language can limit a student’s ability to express their creativity. Vocabulary and syntax place constraints – has anyone ever mentioned how difficult French is to master? On the other hand, if students can recognize what a great French text looks like and justify their choices, they think critically about French texts, understand the criteria and components, and then have the opportunity to demonstrate those skills in a creative way.

Finally, as I head off with all my big ideas, I still have so many questions. What about my kids who are “good” at school? If I cease to give them a right answer, will they be uncomfortable for possibly the first time in their school career? This is excellent but definitely overwhelming. How do I help them change their mindset and stay engaged? And as always, the age old new teacher question. How? How do I make sure they actually learn? What if I have great problems and ideas, but fail to guide my students appropriately? How do I deliver content in critical ways? I have my big ideas and questions, but now how do I tackle day to day thinking? I want to make sure that I am teaching the necessary content in ways that encourage critical thinking, but I’m still stuck on the “how”.

I feel very strongly that teaching should be a collaborative effort and invite you along on my journey. Do you have answers to my questions? New ideas or questions that I haven’t even considered? I’d love to hear your thoughts and suggestions on how to incorporate critical and creative thinking into our classrooms. 

Meghan BurnsAbout the Author

Meghan Burns is a second year Grade 5 French Immersion Teacher at École Charleswood School. She is passionate about collaboration, dedicated to continued growth as an educator and is always looking for ways to get students hooked on learning! You can find her on twitter @madameburns

Posted by Meghan Burns at 12:53 PM – 4 Comments